- Hyphenation: ka·ve·ri
EtymologyYiddish, or more likely either Swedish or Russian origin.
The Kaveri River,(Kannada: ಕಾವೇರಿ, Tamil: காவிரி ஆறு) also spelled Cauvery in English, is one of the major rivers of India, which is considered sacred by Hindus. The river originates at Talakaveri, Kodagu district in the Western Ghats in the state of Karnataka, flows generally south and east through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and across the southern Deccan plateau through the southeastern lowlands, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths.
The Kaveri River basin is estimated to be with many tributaries including the Shimsha, the Hemavati River, the Arkavathy River, Honnuhole River, Lakshmana Tirtha River, Kabini River, Bhavani River, the Lokapavani River, the Noyyal River and the Amaravati River. Rising in southwestern Karnataka state, it flows southeast some 475 mi (765 km) to enter the Bay of Bengal. East of the city of Mysore it forms the island of Shivanasamudra, on either side of which are the scenic Shivanasamudra Falls that descend about 320 ft (100 m). The river is the source for an extensive irrigation system and for hydroelectric power. The river has supported irrigated agriculture for centuries and served as the lifeblood of the ancient kingdoms and modern cities of South India.
Mythic origin: Goddess KaveriThe legend of Kaveri has its origins in Puranas. Kaveri is linked with three puranic iconse Gastya, King Kavera and Lopamudra, the earthly, feminine manifestation of Kaveri herself. It is held that Lopamudra was granted the form of a river, by Brahma, in answer to Tapas performed by all the three, including herself.
Both saint Agasthya and king Kavera were independently performing tapas with salvation (Moksha) as the goal. Pleased by their tapas, Brahma appears before them only to deny both immediate Moksha. Instead, Brahma rules to Kavera that he shall beget a daughter who will lead him to Moksha; to Agasthya, Brahma says, he shall give him a divine wife; Agasthya is to live with her and enrich the world before eventually attaining Moksha. In the meantime it was said that Vishnumaya, the divine daughter of Brahma -- the impeccable feminine creation of the creator, expressing to Brahma her wish to serve the world. Being pleased, Brahma ordain her to be, in due time, Lopamudra, the daughter of Kavera, then the wife of Agasthya, and eventually the sacred of the sacred, the river Kaveri.
In a slightly different version, Kaveri is regarded as the outpour of sage Agasthya's Kamandala; it is said the Lord Ganesh, assuming the form of a crow, upset Agasthya's Kamandala to release the Kaveri.
After assuming the form river, Kaveri performed another tapas to become the sacred of rivers, more sacred than even the Ganges. Her tapas was answered and Lord Vishnu appears before her. On hearing her wish, Lord Vishnu says "Ganges is sacred because she originates from my feet; but you are infinitely more sacred to her as I adorn you as my garland". Upon this blessing, it is said that even Ganges is said to come underground, once a year, to Kaveri to cleanse herself. To this day, Vaishnavites regard Kaveri, the river that holds Srirangam in her bosom, as the most sacred of rivers. Vaishnavaites lovingly regard Kaveri as the mother of Ranganayaki, the is divine consort of Lord Ranganatha of Srirangam.
The river is considered to rise at Talakaveri in the Brahmagiri hills in Kodagu, though there is not a flow at this point all year round. It forms the principal drainage of this district, and is already a major river when it leaves the Western Ghats near Kushalanagara. Near Srirangapatna, there is an aqueduct, the Bangara Doddi Nala, which was constructed in the 17th century by the Wodeyar maharaja of Mysore, Ranadhira Kantirava, in memory of his favorite consort. It is said to be the only aqueduct where the water from a river, dammed upstream, is carried by the aqueduct over the very same river few miles downstream . This aqueduct also served as a motorable bridge till 1964. In addition to providing many ancient and modern canals with water from the river for irrigational purposes, the Kaveri also serves as the main drinking water source for many towns and villages. The cities of Mandya and Mysore depend almost entirely on the Kaveri for their drinking water supply. Infact the river is called Jeevanadhi which is Kannada means a river supporting life.
Kaveri in Tamil Nadu
The River Kaveri enters Tamil Nadu through Krishnagiri district and along its course of flow forms many gorges and waterfalls, famous being the Hogenakkal falls in Dharmapuri District. The Chola king, “Karikalan” has been immortalised as he has constructed the bank for the Kaveri all the way from Puhar (Kaveripoompattinam) to Srirangam. It was built as far back as 1,600 years ago or even more. On both sides of the river are found walls spreading to a distance of . The dam Kallanai on the border between Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur constructed by him is a superb work of engineering, which was constructed with earth and stone and has stood the vagaries of nature for hundreds of years. In 19th century, it was renovated in a bigger scale. The name of the historical dam has since been changed to “Grand Anicut” and stands as the head of great irrigation system in the Thanjavur district. From this point, the coloroon or kollidam runs north-east and discharges herself into the sea at Devakottai, a little south of Parangipettai. From river Coleroon, Manniar and Uppanai branch off at lower Anicut and irrigates a portion of Mayiladuthurai taluk and Sirkazhi taluk in Tanjavur District. After Grand Anicut, the Kaveri divides into numerous branches and cover the whole of the delta with a vast network of irrigation channels and gets lost in the wide expanse of paddy fields. The mighty Kaveri river here is reduced to an insignificant channel and falls into the Bay of Bengal at the historical place of Poompuhar (Kaveripoompatinam) about 13 km north of Tharangampadi. The river Kaveri flows the entire districts of Tanjavur, Thiruvarur and Nagapatinam in different names through its tributaries and branches viz., Grand Anicut canal, Adapparu, Arasalaru, Ayyanaru, Cholasudamani, Harichandranathi, Kaduvaiyar, Kattar, Kirtimanar, Kodamuritiyar, Koraiyar, Mahimalayaru, Majalaru, Mudikondan Aru, Mullaiyaru, Nandalaru, Nattaru, Noolaru, Odambogiyaru, Palavaru, Pamaniyaru, Pandavaiyaru, Pannaiyaru, Putharu, Thirumalairajanaru, Vadavaru, Valapparu, Valavaikkal Aru, Vanjiaru, Veerasozhanaru, Vellaiyaru, Vennaru, Vettaru, Vikaraman Aru and all these branch off into a number of small streams.
The primary uses of Kaveri are providing water for irrigation, water for household consumption and the generation of electricity.
An estimate at the time of the first Five Year Plan, put the total flow of the Kaveri at 12 million acre-feet(15 km³), of which 60% was used for irrigation.
The Torekadanahalli pumpstation sends 540 Mld (million liters per day) of water from Kaveri 100 km to Bangalore .
The water for the Kaveri is primarily supplied by monsoon rains. Dams, such as the Krishna Raja Sagara Dam and Mettur Dam, and those on its tributaries such as Banasura Sagar Dam project on a Kabini River tributary, store water from monsoon periods and release the water during the dry months. Even so, during the months of February-May, water levels are often quite low, and in some channels and distributaries, riverbeds may become dry. Flow generally begins to increase in June or July . However, in some years when rains are light, the low river level can lead to agricultural distress in areas dependent upon Kaveri for irrigation.
The hydroelectric plant built on the left Sivanasamudra Falls on the Kaveri in 1902 was the first hydroelectric plant in Karnataka.
The Krishna Raja Sagara Dam has a capacity of 49 tmc ft. and the Mettur Dam which creates Stanley Reservoir has a capacity of 93.4 tmc ft.(thousand million cubic ft)
In August 2003, inflow into reservoirs in Karnataka was at a 29 year low, with a 58% shortfall. . Water stored in Krishna Raja Sagara amounted to only 4.6 tmc ft. .
The Kaveri, like rivers in general in Kerala, faces many problems, including dry summers, wetland filling, large dams, and pollution
Water sharingWater is addressed in the Constitution of India. The government has set up tribunals for water disputes. The Kaveri Water Disputes Tribunal was set up in June 1990 and has not concluded adjudication. Kaveri water sharing has been a major issue of contention between the states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and the union territory of Pondicherry. A central government agency has been formed to look into this issue.
According to a study conducted by the central government in 1972, the utilisation of water from Kaveri in Tamil Nadu was 489 tmc and Karnataka's utilization of 277 tmc. With the growth in the population, Karnataka wishes to increase its utilization to 465 tmc.
The Kaveri Tribunal, in its interim award of June 1991, ordered that Karnataka should release 205 tmc of water to Tamil Nadu during one "water year" - from June to May. It also stipulated a monthly quota for flow. The Tribunal which had been investigating the issue for 16 years finally came out with the verdict on 5th of February 2007 of 419 tmc for Tamil Nadu, 270 tmc for Karnataka, 50 tmc for Kerala and 7 tmc for Pondichery, a verdict which both Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are believed to challenge.
Points of interest
- Krishna Raja Sagara
- Hogenakal Falls (meaning "smoking rock"): The spray of the river hitting the rocks is so fine that it appears like smoke
- Mekedaatu (Goat's Leap)
- Sivanasamudra Falls
- Bhavani, Tamil Nadu
- Tiruchirapalli (Trichy)
Religious significanceTalakaveri is a pilgrimage site set amidst Bramahagiri Hills in Kodagu. Thousands of piligrims flock to the three temple at the source of the river especially on the specified day known as Tula sankramana when the river water has been said to gush out like a fountain at a predetermined time.
During the month of Tula (Tamil month Ippasi), devotees take holy dip (tula snanam) in the Kavery in the pilgrim centers in its banks across Tamilnadu, most prominent of them being Mayavaram
The three major river islands have a strong Sri Vaishnava heritage, with sculptures of Lord Vishnu in a reclining posture on the legendary seven-headed serpent (Sesha) as his celestial bed (Sheshashayana). These three temples are known as Adi Ranga, Madya Ranga, and Anthya Ranga.
On the banks of the Kaveri is the ancient temple town of Talakad where the holy festival Panchalinga Darshana is held every 12 years and devotees bathe in the Kaveri River.
The Brihadeshvara Temple is located in Thanjavur, not far from the Kaveri.
kaveri in Czech: Kaveri
kaveri in Danish: Kaveri
kaveri in German: Kaveri
kaveri in Spanish: Kaveri
kaveri in French: Kâverî
kaveri in Galician: Río Kaveri
kaveri in Hindi: कावेरी नदी
kaveri in Italian: Kaveri
kaveri in Kannada: ಕಾವೇರಿ ನದಿ
kaveri in Malayalam: കാവേരി
kaveri in Dutch: Kaveri
kaveri in Newari: कावेरि (तमिल संकिपा)
kaveri in Japanese: カーヴィリ川
kaveri in Polish: Kaweri
kaveri in Simple English: Cauvery
kaveri in Finnish: Kaveri
kaveri in Swedish: Kaveri
kaveri in Tamil: காவிரி ஆறு
kaveri in Tajik: Дарёи Кавери